In today’s world, electricity has become an integral part of our lives. From household appliances to large industries, all rely on electricity. However, with increasing electrical installations, there comes an inherent risk of electrical hazards.
Electrical earthing is a critical safety measure that helps protect both people and equipment. Earthing provides a safe path for electrical currents to flow to the earth in case of any faults, preventing damage or electrocution.
Chemical Earthing is a type of earthing that utilizes chemicals and electrodes to create a conductive path between the earth and the electrical installation. This method of earthing is gaining popularity due to its effectiveness in providing low impedance paths for electrical faults.
Types of Chemical Earthing
- Pipe Type Chemical Earthing
In Pipe type chemical earthing, a copper-coated pipe is buried vertically in a pit filled with a mixture of charcoal, salt, and bentonite. This type of earthing is suitable for areas with high soil resistivity.
- Plate Type Chemical Earthing
In Plate type chemical earthing, a copper plate is buried horizontally in a pit filled with a mixture of charcoal, salt, and bentonite. This type of earthing is suitable for areas with low soil resistivity.
- Rod Type Chemical Earthing
In Rod type chemical earthing, a copper bonded rod is buried vertically in a pit filled with a mixture of charcoal, salt, and bentonite. This type of earthing is suitable for areas with medium soil resistivity.
Specifications of Chemical Earthing
- Earth Resistance
The Earth Resistance of Chemical Earthing should be less than 1 Ohm, which ensures a low-impedance path for electrical currents to flow to the earth.
- Chemical Mixture
- The Chemical mixture used in Chemical Earthing consists of Bentonite, Salt, and Charcoal. Bentonite is a natural mineral that helps in retaining moisture, and salt helps in increasing conductivity. Charcoal helps in retaining moisture and reducing the soil resistivity.
- Electrode Material
The Electrode Material used in Chemical Earthing is Copper or GI (Galvanized Iron), as both these metals have high conductivity and are resistant to corrosion.
- Backfill Material
The Backfill Material used in Chemical Earthing is Bentonite. Bentonite is a natural mineral that helps in retaining moisture and increases the conductivity of the chemical mixture.
- Pit Size
The Pit Size for Chemical Earthing depends on the type of earthing and the soil resistivity of the area. In general, the depth of the pit should be at least 3 feet, and the width should be at least 2 feet.
Advantages of Chemical Earthing
- Low Earth Resistance
Chemical Earthing provides a low-impedance path for electrical currents to flow to the earth, which reduces the risk of electrical hazards.
- High Conductivity
The Chemical Mixture used in Chemical Earthing increases the conductivity of the soil, which improves the effectiveness of the earthing system.
- Long Life
Chemical Earthing has a long life, as the chemical mixture used in earthing prevents the electrode from corrosion, thus increasing the life of the earthing system.
- Easy Installation
Chemical Earthing is easy to install and requires less maintenance, which reduces the overall cost of the earthing system.
- Suitable for All Types of Soil
Chemical Earthing is suitable for all types of soil, including rocky and sandy soils, which makes it a versatile earthing system.
Disadvantages of Chemical Earthing
- Initial Cost
The Initial Cost of Chemical Earthing is higher than other types of earthing systems, which can be a disadvantage for small-scale industries.
- Chemical Leakage
Chemical Earthing uses a chemical mixture, which can sometimes leak and contaminate the surrounding soil. This can be an environmental concern, especially in areas with a high concentration of plants or water bodies.
Although Chemical Earthing requires less maintenance than other types of earthing systems, it still requires periodic checks to ensure its effectiveness. The chemical mixture used in Chemical Earthing can also dry out over time, reducing its conductivity and increasing the earth resistance.
- Installation Requirements
Chemical Earthing requires specific installation requirements, such as the depth and size of the pit, the type of electrode material used, and the chemical mixture’s composition. Failure to follow these requirements can result in an ineffective earthing system.
- Weather Conditions
Extreme weather conditions, such as heavy rain or drought, can affect the conductivity of the soil, which can reduce the effectiveness of the earthing system.
Chemical Earthing is an effective and efficient method of providing a low-impedance path for electrical faults to flow to the earth. The chemical mixture used in Chemical Earthing improves the conductivity of the soil, increasing the effectiveness of the earthing system. However, Chemical Earthing requires specific installation requirements and periodic maintenance to ensure its effectiveness. While Chemical Earthing has its advantages and disadvantages, it remains a popular choice for industries looking to ensure the safety of their equipment and personnel.